Introduction to Computer Music


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Busoni, Ferruccio. 2011. Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. New York: Schirmer. {}

Boulez, Pierre and Andrew Gerzo. "Computers in Music." Scientific American 258/4 (April 1988). {IRCAM}

Carlos, Wendy. 1989. "Three Asymmetric Divisions of the Octave." Available online at: <>.

____________. 1987. "Tuning at the Crossroads." Computer Music Journal 11/1 (Spring 1987): 29-42. Cambridge, MA. {JSTOR}

Chowning, John. 1977/1973. "The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation." Computer Music Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2 (April, 1977): 46–54. {JSTOR}

Cody, Joshua and Paul Lansky. 1996. "An Interview with Paul Lansky." Computer Music Journal 20/1 (Spring 1996): 19–24. {JSTOR}

Cope, David. 1977. "The Mechanics of Listening to Electronic Music." Music Educators Journal 64/2 (Oct., 1977): 47-51. {JSTOR}

Cycling '74. 2020. "MSP: How Digital Audio Works," in Max 8 Documentation. San Francisco: Cycling '74. Available online at: <>.

Dobrian, Christopher. 1988. Music Programming: An Introductory Essay. Available online at: <>.

Fick, Jason. "Electronic Music History through Guided Discovery: An Active Learning Approach to Engage the Millennial Student." Engaging Students: Essays in Music Pedagogy Vol. 5 {}

Moorer, James A., John Grey and John Strawn. 1978. "Lexicon of Analyzed Tones. Part 3: The Trumpet." Computer Music Journal 2/2 (Sep., 1978): 23-31. {JSTOR}

Harley, James. 2002. "The Electroacoustic Music of Iannis Xenakis." Computer Music Journal 26/1 (Spring, 2002): 33-57. {JSTOR}

Hermann, Thomas, Andy Hunt, and John G. Neuhoff. 2011. "Ch. 1 Introduction," The Sonification Handbook. Berlin: Logos. Available online at: <>.

Levin, Theodore and Michael Edgerton. 1999. "The Throat Singers of Tuva." Scientific American (September 1999). {JSTOR}

Mathews, Max. 1963. "The Digital Computer as a Musical Instrument." Science 142/3592 (Nov. 1, 1963): 553–557.  {JSTOR}

Maurer, John. A. 1999. "A Brief History of Algorithmic Composition." Available online at: <>.

Meneghini, Matteo. 2007. "An Analysis of the Compositional Techniques in John Chowning's 'Stria'." Computer Music Journal 41/3 (Fall 2007): 26–37. {JSTOR}

Polansky, Larry. "The Early Works of James Tenney." Soundings 13, edited by Peter Garland. Available online at: <>.

Risset, J. C. "Computer Music Why?" Available online at: <>.

Risset, Jean-Claude. 1994. "Sculpting Sounds with Computers: Music, Science, Technology." Leonardo 27/3, Art and Science Similarities, Differences and Interactions: Special Issue (1994): 257-261. {JSTOR}

Russolo, Luigi. 1913/1967. The Art of Noises (futurist manifesto, 1913), translated by Robert Filliou. ubuclassics. Available online at: <>.

Smalley, Denis. 1997. “Spectromorphology: explaining sound-shapes.” Organised Sound 2/2: 107–126.

Updated: August 14, 2021

Reginald Bain | University of South Carolina | School of Music