Introduction to Computer Music


Hass, Introduction to Computer Music

Return to: MUSC 336

We will use Jeffery Hass's open access textbook Introduction to Computer Music (Hass 2021) as an online reference for acoustics, studio gear, MIDI, synthesis, and digital audio.


Ch. 1 Acoustics

  1. Introduction {Hass}
  2. What is Sound? {Hass}
  3. Speed of Sound {Hass}
  4. Sound Waves {Hass}
  5. Frequency {Hass}
  6. Wavelength {Hass}
  7. Amplitude {Hass}
  8. Wave shape {Hass}
  9. Phase {Hass}
  10. Resonance {Hass}
  11. Reflection {Hass}
  12. Reverberation {Hass}
  13. Standing Wave {Hass}
  14. How the Ear Works {Hass}
  15. Pitch and Tuning {Hass}
  16. Loudness {Hass}
  17. Timbre {Hass}
  18. Localization {Hass}

Ch. 2 Studio Gear

  1. Introduction {Hass}
  2. Cables and Connectors {Hass}
  3. Microphones {Hass}
  4. Mixing Consoles {Hass}
  5. Signal Processing: Effects {Hass}
    (reverb, compression, EQ, delay, etc.)

Ch. 3 MIDI

  1. Overview and History {Hass}
  2. Hardware Specification {Hass}
  3. Data Format {Hass}
  4. Channel Voice Messages {Hass}
  5. MIDI Controllers (plus full controller chart) {Hass}
  6. Channel Mode Messages {Hass}
  7. System Messages {Hass}
  8. SysEx Extensions (incl. MTC and MMC) {Hass}
  9. Non-code MIDI Extensions (SMF & GM) {Hass}

Ch. 4 Synthesis

  1. History {Hass}
  2. Waveforms {Hass}
  3. Filters {Hass}
  4. Analog Synth Concepts {Hass}
  5. Envelopes and Gates {Hass}
  6. Patches: The Basic Patch {Hass}
  7. Patches: Sub-audio Rate Modulation {Hass}
  8. Audio-rate FM Synthesis {Hass}
  9. Audio-rate Amplitude and Ring Modulation {Hass}
  10. Phase Vocoding {Hass}
  11. Convolution {Hass}
  12. Granular Synthesis and Granulation of Sampled Sound {Hass}
  13. Speech Synthesis and the Channel Vocoder {Hass}
  14. A Digital Synthesis Language Sampler {Hass}

Ch. 5 Digital Audio

  1. Overview {Hass}
  2. Binary Numbers {Hass}
  3. Samples and Sampling {Hass}
  4. Nyquest Theorem {Hass}
  5. Sample Rates {Hass}
  6. Quantization, Approximation Erros and Sample Size {Hass}
  7. Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs) {Hass}
  8. Audio File Formats {Hass}
  9. References {Hass}

Ch. 6 Electronic Music History

  1. Electronic Music Historical Timeline {Hass}


  1. Texts and Resources {Hass}
  2. Pitch to Frequency MIDI Chart {Hass}
  3. Electricity & Electronics Basics for Electronic Music {Hass}
  4. Non-traditional Tuning and Temperament {Hass}
  5. Educational and Professional Links {Hass}


Hass, Jeffery. 2021. Introduction to Computer Music: An Electronic Textbook, 2nd ed. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. Available online at: <>.

Updated: November 12, 2023

Reginald Bain | University of South Carolina | School of Music