Introduction to Computer Music


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Manning, Electronic and Computer Music coverOnline Resources

  1. Historical Timelines
  2. Early Electronic Instruments
  3. A Brief History of...
  4. Current Research & Creative Activity


Baker, Joanne. 2018. "The Doctor Who theme and beyond: female pioneers of electronic music. Nature (November 16, 2019). {Nature}

Burk, Phil, Larry Polansky, Douglas Repetto, Mary Roberts and Dan Rockmore. 2011. Music and Computers:  A Theoretical and Historical Approach, Archival Version. Available online at: <>.

Burns, Kristine H. History of Electronic and Computer Music: Including Automatic Instruments and Composition Machines. Available online at: <>.

Cage, John. 1961. Silence: Lectures and Writings. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. {GB}

Chadabe, Joel. 1997. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. {GBd}

Collins, Nicholas and Julio d'Escrivan Rincón. 2017. The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. {GB}

Collins, Nicholas, Margaret Schedel and Scott Wilson. 2013. Electronic Music. New York: Cambridge University Press. {GB}

Copeland, Jack and Jason Long. "Turing and the History of Computer Music."  Philosophical Explorations of the Legacy of Alan Turing (May 31, 2017): 189-218. {SpringerLink}

Cox, Christopher and Daniel Warner, ed. 2004. Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum. {GBd}

Davies, Hugh. "Electronic instruments." Grove Music Online. 2001. {Grove}

Dean, Roger T., ed. 2018. The Oxford Handbook of Algorithmic Music. New York: Oxford. {GB}

____________, ed. 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music. New York: Oxford. {GB}

Doty, Marc. 2013. The Foundation of Synthesis Videos, with Marc Doty. {Moog Foundation}

Emmerson, Simon and Leigh Landy, eds. 2016. Expanding the Horizon of Electroacoustic Music Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {GB}

Fick, Jason. 2017. "Electronic Music History through Guided Discovery: An Active Learning Approach to Engage the Millennial Student." In Engaging Students: Essays in Music Pedagogy Vol. 5. Available online at: <>.

Hass, Jeffery. 2020. Introduction to Computer Music: An Electronic Textbook, 2nd ed. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. Available online at: <>.

Holmes, Thom. 2015. Electronic and Experimental Music, 5th ed. New York: Routledge. {GB}

Landy, Leigh. 2007. Understanding the Art of Sound Organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. {GB}

Manning, Peter. 2013. Electronic and Computer Music. 4th ed. New York: Oxford. {GB; Ebook Central}

McLean and Roger T. Dean, eds. 2018. The Oxford Handbook of Algorithmic Music. New York: Oxford University Press. {GB}

Nelson, Andrew J. 2015. The Sound of Innovation: Stanford and the Computer Music Revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. {GB; Full text: Ebook Central}

Nyman, Michael. 1999. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {GB}

Roads, Curtis. 2015. Composing Electronic Music: A New Aesthetic. New York: Oxford. {GB; Companion Website}

Rogers, Tara. 2010. Pink Noises: Women on Electronic Music and Sound. Durham: Duke University Press. {GB}

Stubbs, David. 2018. Future Sounds: The Story of Electronic Music from Stockhausen to Skrillex. New York: Faber & Faber. {GB}

Updated: February 4, 2022

Reginald Bain | University of South Carolina | School of Music